Retrospective Analysis of Periodontal Bone Loss from Orthopantogram X-Ray of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients Visiting Punjab Dental Hospital Lahore
Keywords:Orthopantogram X-ray, periodontitis, interproximal bone loss, diabetes mellitus, retrospective analysis
Background: Periodontitis is a dental public health issue evident by interdental bone loss which can be detected by periapical and Orthopantograph (OPG) radiograph. The objective of this retrospective study was to compare bone loss in diabetic and non-diabetic patients visiting Punjab Dental Hospital (PDH) Lahore.
Methods: Bone loss was measured in mesial and distal sites of six teeth i.e. tooth numbers 16, 11, 26, 31, 36, and 46 and a mean score was assigned to each tooth. A score < 2 mm was taken as normal and > 2mm as bone loss from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) to interdental bone (Alveolar bone crest). Data was entered into SPSS 22. Variables like age and bone loss were analyzed as mean and SD. A Chi-square test was applied between diabetic, non-diabetic, and independent variables. A p-value of equal to or less than 0.05 was taken as significant.
Results: This study included 101 OPG X-ray, 39 (38.6%) diabetic and 62 (61.4) non-diabetics. The mean age in the diabetic group is 44.2821±6.1 and in non-diabetic individuals it is 31.7581±9.3. Bone loss in diabetics was as high as compared to non-diabetics. Such as in diabetics, tooth no.16’s mean value is 3.8462 as compared to non-diabetics 2.7258. Significant association between bone loss and status of diabetes was observed in all teeth except tooth no. 31.
Conclusion: Radiographically, bone loss is more common in diabetic individuals than non-diabetic healthy people. First molars have more bone loss than incisors.
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