Frequency of Nutritional Rickets, its Predisposing Factors, and its Relationship to Respiratory Tract Infections in Hospitalized Children (6-59 Months)

Authors

  • Qaisar Raza University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences UVAS, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Khushbakht Ali University of Home Economics, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Saeed Imran University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences UVAS, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Zainab Tahir University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences UVAS, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Eisha Khan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences UVAS, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Sajid Ali Shah Health Services Academy Islamabad

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32413/pjph.v14i1.1275

Keywords:

Nutritional rickets, Hospital, Respiratory tract infections, Children, Biomarkers

Abstract

Background: Local data on nutritional rickets in Lahore division is lacking, although clinical records indicate its presence and resurgence in this city with seemingly sufficient sunlight. This observational study aims to describe the frequency and predisposing factors of nutritional rickets, particularly in relation to lower respiratory tract infections.

Methodology: Out of 170 subjects approached, 71 children were included in the study. Participants were categorized into two groups based on the presence or absence of nutritional rickets. A questionnaire was utilized to collect data on lifestyle, socio-demographics, and eating patterns. Physical examinations were conducted by medical officers, and serum levels of phosphorus, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D were assessed.

Results: The frequency of nutritional rickets was found to be 29% among patients aged 6 to 59 months. 47.6% of participants with nutritional rickets and 46% of non-rachitic participants were under two years old. Serum phosphorus levels showed an independent association with nutritional rickets. Complexion, breastfeeding, formula feeding, and birth order did not exhibit any statistical association with rickets. Respiratory tract infections were the leading cause of hospitalization (52.3%) among participants with nutritional rickets. A significant correlation was observed between deficiency of the immune modulator 25-hydroxyvitamin D and susceptibility to respiratory tract infections.

Conclusion: Rickets remains a prevalent issue in our setting despite abundant sunlight. Pediatricians should proactively examine and screen for rickets in children, especially those showing subtle physical signs.

Author Biographies

  • Qaisar Raza, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences UVAS, Lahore, Pakistan.

    Dr. Qaisar Raza, is Assistant Professor in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Bio-Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore–Pakistan. He has completed his B.Sc. (Hons.) Agriculture, major subject as Food Technology in 2004 and M.Sc. (Hons.) Food Science and Technology in 2006 from National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad–Pakistan. He also completed his Masters in Public Health from Maastricht University, the Netherlands. Dr. Qaisar has earned PhD in Public Health Nutrition from Vrije Universiteit (Free University) Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He is also a Postdoc Fellow in the department of Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In his Doctorate studies, he explored the dietary patterns of the South Asians in relation to non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity and hypercholesterolemia. He has also studied the processes of migration, dietary acculturation and epidemiology of diseases among the South Asians including Pakistanis. He has written six peer reviewed research papers in well-known scientific journals with good impact factor. Dr. Qaisar has also presented his scientific work in 7 national and international conferences worldwide including New Zealand, Australia and Portugal. So far, he has produced around 8 postgraduate students under his supervision. His research interest areas are Diet, Non-communicable diseases, dietary acculturation and epidemiology. His interest particularly lies in exploring the lifestyle diseases.

  • Muhammad Saeed Imran, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences UVAS, Lahore, Pakistan.

    Dr. Saeed Imran is Assistant Professor in department of pathology UVAS, Lahore. He did his DVM from UAF, MSc (Hons.) in Veterinary Pathology from UAF. He completed his PhD degree in pathology from the UVAS Lahore. He has about 30 years’ field experience in poultry sector regarding disease diagnosis. He earned many appreciations both from government and private sector. He delivered many seminars on environmentally controlled houses of poultry and also on investigation of disease on the basis of necropsy. He published colored Atlas titled “A color Atlas of gross pathology of avian diseases” in 2007.He also published a colored Atlas entitled poultry disease diagnosis (colored Atlas) second edition in 2016. Now he is poultry consultant in the department of pathology as an in charge of Post-mortem Block. He has five years and four-month teaching and research experience in UAF Sub campus Toba Tek Singh. He joined UVAS as Assistant Professor from 30-05- 2011. He is involved in teaching and research of undergraduate and postgraduate students. He is also involved in histopathology lab.He is visiting consultant of Lahore Zoo, Safari Zoo Lahore and wildlife breeding farm Jallo Lahore, special branch Police, Rangers head quarter Lahore and various private farms poultry and livestock in necropsy. He is the member of internship committee of DVM classes. He is also member 24/7 extension services UVAS, Lahore. He is the Editor of Pakistan Journal of Science(PJS) ISSN:0300-9877(Print) ISSN:2411-0930(Online) Ref. No. PAAS/2022 dated 18-08-2021

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Published

29-03-2024

How to Cite

1.
Raza Q, Ali K, Imran MS, Tahir Z, Khan E, Sajid Ali Shah. Frequency of Nutritional Rickets, its Predisposing Factors, and its Relationship to Respiratory Tract Infections in Hospitalized Children (6-59 Months). Pak J Public Health [Internet]. 2024 Mar. 29 [cited 2024 Jun. 14];14(1):14-9. Available from: https://pjph.org/pjph/article/view/1275