AWARENESS OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE RISK FACTORS AMONG PATIENTS AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN RAWALPINDI PAKISTAN
Keywords:Coronary Artery Disease, Risk Factors, Awareness, Pakistan
Background: Pakistan has a huge burden of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and dearth of resources to fight it, which makes primary prevention of the disease by increasing awareness among the population very important. The objective of this study was to assess awareness of Coronary Artery Disease risk factors among patients in Rawalpindi.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology Rawalpindi Pakistan from November 2016 to November 2017. Sample size of 480 was calculated using WHO sample size calculator. Questionnaires were distributed to 480 outdoor patients by convenience sampling, of which 80 (16.5%) did not know about CAD and were not investigated further. Responses only from the remaining 400 patients were included. The questionnaire contained close-ended questions on risk factors for CAD and means of increasing CAD awareness. Indoor patients were excluded from the study. Data was analyzed with SPSSv21.
Results: The mean age of patients was 53+6 years and 60% were males. 81.5% patients were able to read and write. Mean score of correctly identified risk factors was (6+2 out of 10). The percentage of patients aware of the different risk factors is as follows; diabetes (59.3%), hypertension (80.7%), dietary fat (79%), smoking (77.5%), stress (75.5%), sedentary lifestyle (68%), obesity (66%), old age (65.2%), male gender (52.7%) and family history (52%). Percentage of patients desirous of increasing their awareness about CAD risk factors through various means is as follows; treating physicians (84.8%), media (76.5%), syllabus and scholars (82.8%).
Conclusion: Awareness about modifiable risk factors; hypertension, smoking, high dietary fat intake, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and stress with the exception of diabetes is reasonably good. Awareness about non-modifiable risk factors; family history, male sex and aging is poor.