Assessment of the Influence of Risk Factors on the Incidence of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) in the Northern Pakistani Population


  • Ahsan Ullah School of Dentistry SZABMU islamabad
  • Namal Pervez de’Montmorency College of Dentistry Lahore
  • Muhammad Mohsin Javaid Demonstrator, School of dentistry/PIMS, SZABMU Islamabad
  • Shahab Ud Din Professor, School of dentistry/PIMS, SZABMU Islamabad
  • Sehrish Liaqat Associate Professor, Nishtar Institute of Dentistry Multan
  • Muhammad Junaid Post graduate registrar, School of Dentistry, SZABMU Islambad



Paan chewing, Oral cancer, Risk factor, Public health, Pathogenesis


Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer, accounting for over 94 percent of all cases, with substantial disparities in occurrence among South Asian countries. In Pakistan its occurrence rate rises from last two decade. A combination of risk factor habit, duration and intensity doubles the rate of incidence.

Methods: Fully informed consent was taken. Both genders having age 18-55 years and cases confirmed by biopsy reports were included in the study. A thorough history of the disease and risk factors were taken and labelled (smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel nut chewing) accordingly. Data was analysed using SPSS 20. Gender base stratification was done using chi-square test and significance was defined as a P value of ? 0.05.

Results: In present study 110 (73.3%) male and 40 (26.7%) female patients. Mean ±SD of age of OSCC patients was 47.00± 9.170 years. Among the participants 9 (6.0%) smokers, 39 (26.0%) consumed alcohol, use betel and 24 (16.0%) areca nut pan. Association of smoking with gender was statistically significant (p=0.013). Similarly, betel nut chewing also showed statistically significant correlation with gender (p=0.044). Both alcohol and snuff did not show any statistically significant correlation with gender.

Conclusion: The public should be aware of the association of the risk factors and development of oral cancer. Public health measures should be taken to prevent smoking and chewing tobacco.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

Ullah, A., Pervez, N., Mohsin Javaid , M., Din, S. U., Liaqat, S., & Junaid , M. (2023). Assessment of the Influence of Risk Factors on the Incidence of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) in the Northern Pakistani Population. Pakistan Journal of Public Health, 13(2), 80–83.