Pakistan Journal of Public Health is the official journal published by the Health Services Academy, Government of Pakistan. The Academy aspires to become a regional academic centre of excellence in public health training, policy advice and health systems research that is nationally and internationally accredited. The mission of the Academy is to improve the health of the population of Pakistan and its surrounding region by enhancing human resource development and contribution to evidence-based policies and practices.

PJPH is a forum for the presentation and promotion of new initiatives and evidence based research in public health which will potentially inform polices and help in improving the health services. It invites all members of the public health domain for the exchange of ideas, views, concepts, epidemiological data and research findings.

DISCLAIMER

Publications of the Health Services Academy enjoy copyright protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention. All rights reserved.

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Health Services Academy concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitations of its frontiers or boundaries.

The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the Health Services Academy in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.

The authors alone are responsible for the views expressed, which do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Health Services Academy.